It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance what to do, when to do & how to do.
It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be” A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc.
It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals.
According to Henry Fayola, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i’s.
Raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure.
Organizing as a process Involves Identification of activities Classification of grouping of activities Assignment of duties.
Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.
It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc.
Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place).
Recruitment, Selection & Placement?
Training & Development.
Remuneration. Performance Appraisal.
Promotions & Transfer.
It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes.
It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work.
Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding. Supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals.
Direction Has Following Elements?
- Supervision implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers.
Motivation means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose.
Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction.
Communications- Is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc. from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding
Controlling it implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals.
The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur.
Therefore controlling has following steps?
Establishment of standard performance.
Measurement of actual performance.
Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any Corrective action.